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Malaria Journal volume 15 , Article number: Cite this article. Metrics details. Anopheles nuneztovari sensu lato comprises cryptic species in northern South America, and the Brazilian populations encompass distinct genetic lineages within the Brazilian Amazon region.
This study investigated, based on two molecular markers, whether these lineages might actually deserve species status. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the maximum likelihood ML approach. Intra and inter samples genetic diversity were estimated using population genetics analyses, and the genetic groups were identified by means of the ML, Bayesian and factorial correspondence analyses and the Bayesian analysis of population structure.
The haplotype network suggested three lineages. The ML tree retrieved five monophyletic groups. Groups IV and V clustered specimens of A. In the second phylogenetic analysis, the sequences from GenBank, identified as A. Genetic distances Kimura-2 parameters among the groups ranged from 1. Microsatellite data revealed very high intra-population genetic variability. The two markers revealed three genetic lineages for A.
Lineages I and II may represent genetically distinct groups or species within A. Lineage III may represent a new species, distinct from the A. They may have differences in Plasmodium susceptibility and should therefore be investigated further. Anopheles nuneztovari sensu lato was originally described in San Carlos, State of Cojedes, western Venezuela. It is geographically distributed from eastern Panama to northern South America [ 1 ] and is considered one of the four most important malaria vectors in northern South America, together with A.
Anopheles nuneztovari s. Differently from Colombia and Venezuela, the Brazilian populations of this species, which are predominantly zoophagic, were not considered a malaria vector in past decades s—s. However, with the development of more sensitive techniques for detecting malaria parasites, A. Supporting these findings, experimental infection studies conducted with A. In view of its importance as malaria vector in northern South America, a great number of studies was conducted with A.